A Reform Agenda 11 – A Cabinet determined on a scientific basis

The saddest victim of the Ranil Wickremesinghe style of politics has been the Cabinet. There was a pledge in the President's manifesto to begin with a Cabinet of 25 members. This was expanded to 28, and the pledge that the Cabinet would consist of representatives of all political parties was ignored. I did point this out to the President, and mentioned that Mr Radhakrishnan too had been a victim of this breach of promise.

However I said I would get down to work, and I did so. A further shock awaited, when Kabir Hashim was made Cabinet Minister of Highways and Higher Education and Investment Promotion, but being naïve I believed him when he said he would not interfere. But given the opportunities for patronage, which seems the principal thrust of the UNP led government, he did of course interfere, and was even able to justify the efforts of his personal staff to take possession of extra vehicles as soon as I returned them.

Liberal Party lauds proposed 20th A

Liberal Party Secretary General Kamal Nissanka issuing a statement on the draft 20th Amendment Bill states that the party is of the view that the present preferential system in elections leads to corruption of the political office as the candidate has to canvass and cover a whole district during elections. Misuse of state power and property has become a common feature in electoral politics. It should be changed to reflect the opinion of the voter.

The statement adds: "The existing system does not produce a member for every electorate. Voter is frustrated as in some instances, they do no have a representative in Parliament.

"Dinesh Goonawardene report on electoral reforms admitted the necessity of the direct member for an electorate as well as the proportion, but in deciding the proportion, it suggested to eliminate the votes of successful candidates and add only the votes of defeating candidates.

"The Liberal Party feels that the proposed 20th Amendment on electoral reforms has settled most of the problems lasted in our electoral method.

Political Principles and their Practice 9 - Democracy, Representation and Devolution

In this section I look at how Democracy has evolved in the modern period, and glance at the methods by which people choose their representatives.

Democracy in the Modern Period

During the Renaissance, when classical (that is, Greek and Roman) learning was revived in Europe, there were a few Italian city-states that practised some forms of democracy. But these too eventually submitted to the rule of autocrats, or became parts of larger kingdoms.

As the world began entering the Modern Period, beginning in the sixteenth century, Europe, after reaching Asia and the Americas through its voyages of exploration, began to exercise power over the rest of the world At this time Europe was dominated by large empires and kingdoms ruled by hereditary monarchs. But as wealth increased, and more and more people began to feel the need to participate in government, demands for democracy developed. Study of classical authors helped to establish the idea that the state should be based on a social contract, whereby the rulers were bound to act on behalf of the people. If they failed to do this, they could be challenged. The Divine Rights Theory of Monarchy, which held that a state belonged to the monarch, lost credibility.

Political Principles and their Practice 10 - Electoral Systems

To ensure that Parliament is composed proportionate to the will of the people, while at the same time allowing for constituencies that had individual representatives, the Germans developed a system that combines features of both the simple-majority system and the proportional representation system. In the German system, half the seats in parliament are occupied by candidates elected on a constituency basis. In addition, voters cast votes for a party and those votes are counted separately.

The number of seats a party occupies in the parliament must be in proportion to these votes. In order to achieve this, the remaining half of the seats in parliament, after the individual constituency representatives have been chosen, is allocated to each party to reflect the proportion of the votes they obtained on the party vote. This requires correction of any imbalance caused by the constituency vote, where one party may win a great many constituencies even though it has won each of them by a very small majority.

Political Principles and their Practice 8 - Democracy, Representation and Devolution

In Political Principles and their Practice, which Cambridge University Press in India published some years back, the 3rd chapter (after chapters on the State and the Powers and Functions of Government) was about the Law. However I thought that I would leave that till later, and move on to Chapter 4 because of current concerns about changing the electoral system. This chapter explores systems of representation, but before we look into that, it makes sense to consider what me mean by Democracy, and how it has developed over the years.

The origins of democracy

The word 'democracy' comes from two Greek words, 'demos' and 'kratos', which mean 'people' and 'power'. Thus, by democracy is meant a political system in which power belongs to the people. This is now generally accepted as the best system of government, inasmuch as it is the people who constitute the state, and therefore the government of a state should be in the hands of its people. However, numerous disagreements arise when we try to work out the best mechanisms through which people can exercise their power of government.

Clearly, all the people cannot rule together. Therefore, in a democracy, at any given period some of the people have to rule on behalf of the rest. But choosing some people as representatives of all the others has its problems.

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